Luiz Koshiba Historia Do Brasil Pdf 89 |WORK|
Luiz Koshiba Historia Do Brasil Pdf 89
by speaking of the brazilian indians, we can say that they are basically horticulturalist, they lived in a state of nature, occupying the area between the atlantic forest and the amazon rainforest. this was the area occupied from east to west and from south to north, with an average altitude of 1200 meters above sea level and including this area the rio branco, são francisco, xingu, paraguai and the jurumã rivers, except for some areas in the north, which were covered by dense virgin forest of the best quality.
how would one write these various cultures of the indians? isolated, small indigenous populations, differing one from another, often composed of different groups; here, for instance, is the são francisco river, larger and more densely populated, and also had the guarani-kaiowá and xavante, tupi-kaiowá, guarani, one is in the state of bahia, another in the tocantins, one in piaui, another in amazonas, another in pará. between the western and eastern plateau and the great rivers were the kitik, xavante and xapuri, the tucano, guaicurú and nhundu and the jibarançu, among others. thus, the largest concentration of indians in brazil was formed by the tupi, whose principal groups were the tupi-guarani, a superior culture in brazil, and the xavante, tupi-kaiowá and tupinambá.
for a while there were too many for practical use or consumption. the panoramic description of the brazilian amazon is summarized in koshiba (1997). this study was based on the analysis of the information in the carta de navegação of the captain pedro paulo álvares cabral, and the data obtained from the letters and journals of his contacts.
in 1538, the portuguese explorers led by antenor uchoa discovered the sources of the xingu and rumo-ruruna rivers, with the decision to divide the indian territory into three parts: the northern part that was called minas gerais and occupied by the tupinambas, also called minas cabanas, around luvandia; the central part that was called goiás, inhabited by the the xavantes and the lêkatei; and the southern part, on the xingu river, which was colonized by the xavante indians, called xavante. at the beginning of the 17th century, during the dutch colonization of the area that would later be considered as the lower xingu, the language of those who wrote in this area was the tupi-guarani language, while the language of the tupinambas, the xavantes and the lêkatei was called xavante-goiô.
however, the portuguese land owners were more and more agitated and began to build forts with cannon and muskets and put in place strategies to defend themselves, as they used ever more force to eradicate enemies, until the indigenous became angry and guerrilla tactics began. as the population became more and more settled, some indians became fortifying some regions to resist the portuguese. in 1614, domingos de seabra entered pataxó in pernambuco and burned alive approximately 600 adults and children, in addition to another 200 captives in a church of recife.
by means of these successes, the portuguese would not stop conquering land and by the end of the 17th century, all the coast and part of the inland was their property. they began to gather wood, of which they used the fire to extract salt from the brine, so they were very comfortable with the salt and the land was shared among them. this was the beginning of a brutal pattern of violence against the indians, which would become worse and worse during the following years, until they established absolute domination.